Thursday, October 16, 2008

The application of psychoanalysis on Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre

You have seen briefly how psychoanalysis works with literature through Freud's own analysis on Shakespeare's Hamlet. Now it's your turn to show how another literary work, in this case, Jane Eyre, is approached by means of psychoanalytic criticism.

Discuss the article I uploaded in the previous post with your group, and place your summary as the result of your discussion. Your work is due on Saturday, October 18, 2008.

13 comments:

dewi cahyu said...

Group's members:
1. Dewi Cahyuningtyas (052154243)
2. Yuniz Fauzia A.P.S (052154244)
3. Ali Musthofa (052154246)
4. Aprillia (052154247)
5. Samsul Arifin (052154270)



Summary and Comments

After a further look and analysis, "The application of psychoanalysis on Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre" article has no enough correlation between Freudian theory and the novel itself. Because, as stated on the first page of the article, there is an explanation about the meaning of psychoanalytic criticism based on Sigmund Freud, without relate it with Jane Eyre novel.
'Freud's theories are either directly or indirectly concerned with the nature of the unconscious mind.' (par. 4) Here, we can see that Sigmund Freud has already define the unconscious part of human; ego, super-ego, and id. Those three things are represent the situation of a human when they not even realize it happens. It also happen on the situations of Oedipus Complex, where somebody has a special feelings to someone else yet with the difference on their age which very extreme, especially where a young person loves the elder one. Based on Sigmund Freud, this Oedipus Complex things is the explanation of super-ego. He also developed that Oedipus Complex situation is usually happens in "male" perspective.
Further, Jacques Lacan, a french theorist, explain the Freudian theory in his seminar. He succesfully developed Freudian theory about Oedipus Complex itself as the Oedipal stage and complex. He stated that the pre-oedipal stage is a stage where a child does not even recognize his opwn situation and feelings toward their mother, since they can not be independent. Then, the next stage is the mirror stage a.k.a the imaginary stage, where soon will become the oedipal stage. This development has succeeded give some important result; His sexist-seeming association of maleness with the symbolic order, Lacan's theory has proved of interest to deconstructors and other poststructuralists.
There, Ross C. Murfin, the writer of the article, relate those two theories and analysis with other analysis from Dianne F. Sadoff, and finally stated that Jane Eyre novel has "female Oedipus Complex" since the position of Jane Eyre herself, when she fall in love to Mr. Rochester, based on Sadoff's opinion that follows Lacan and Freudian theory.
So, we conclude that although the application of psychoanalysis approach is not quite good at the beginning but by the end of the article, we can see that it already implemented.

My Group said...

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Rendri Rianti (052154031)
Meria Zakiah .A (052154051)
Yuni Setyaningsih (052154052)
Hangga Dresti Kumala (052154264)

PSYCHOANALYTIC CRITICISM IN CHARLOTE BRONTE’S JANE EYRE

It seems natural to think about literature in terms and desire. Like dreams, literary works are fictions, inventions of the mind that, although based on reality, are by definition no literally true. Like a literary, dream may have a truth if it interpreted before. And desire, almost of Freud’s theory is also correlated. Almost of us have our own daydream, and all just being our daydream if we haven’t our own desire to make it real.
The notion that the dreams allow such psychic exploration, of course, like the analogy between literary works and dreams, owes a great deal to the thinking of Sigmund Freud, the famous Austrian psychoanalyst who published a seminal essay, The Interpretation of Dreams. All Freudian at one time or another, most of them have referred to ego, libido, complexes, unconscious desire, and sexual repression. The premises of Freud’s thought have changed the way the Western world thinks about itself. Freud’s theories are either directly or indirectly concerned with the nature of the unconscious mind.
Freud didn’t invent the notion of the unconscious; others before him had suggested that even the supposedly “sane” human mind was conscious and rational only at times and even then at possibly only one level. But, Freud went further, suggesting that the powers motivating men and women are mainly and normally unconscious.
Freud an old idea about human mind are separated into three ways, there are: Id, ego, superego. Id is our predominantly passional , irrational, unknown, and unconscious part of the psyche. Ego, or I was the term or the predominantly rational, logical, orderly, conscious part the superego is “outside,” since much of what it tell us to do or think we have learned from our parents, or our religious institutions. What the ego, and superego tell us, not to do or think is repressed, forced into the unconscious mind.
Freud also tells about our wishes and fear that must be repressed. One of Freud explanation is about unconscious desires most commonly repressed is the childhood wish to displace the parents of our own sex and take his or her place in the affections of the parent of the opposite sex. For example on Oedipus Complex, here Freud concerns himself mainly with the male that may fear that his father will castrate him, and he may wish that his mother would return to nursing him. What Freud explains above is also reflected in Jane Eyre’s Charlote Bronte literary works. Bronte’s novels, according to Sadoff, relates these culturally conditioned “structures” of “female desire” to Bronte’s life, remaining that the author of Jane Eyre lost her mother at age six and was left with an “eccentric” perhaps overbearing father who withdrew, who added to rather than healed the (maternal) void in his children’s experiences.”
In this case, Jane Eyre repressed her wishes and also her fear. Bronte may wish that Jane Eyre has a lot of love and attention from his father. Jane Eyre may fear that her civilization will insulting her. The same line this novel tells us about a childhood fantasies. Freud is also point out that his interested in the father-daughter relationship as viewed these fantasies as originating in the struggle of the Oedipus Complex and expressing erotic love for the “father”.

Ree_a said...

The Assignment of Theory of Literature II

1. Nur Yulia R Arani (052154037)
2. Ria Kusumaningrum (052154038)
3. Uning Musthofiyah (052154040)
4. Primasia K Nariswari(052154046)


A. SUMMARY OF ARTICLE “PSYCHOANALYTIC CRITICISM AND JANE EYRE”

The way how dream and literary work are is almost the same. They both are fictions. Freud’s concept of psychology has changed way of all people thinking. Freudian concepts about human psychology give contribution in order to appreciating literature work in a new level. Freud’s theory is also talking about nature and unconscious mind. Furthermore, Freud invention new idea which is inspired by an old idea: id, ego, and superego.
Freud gives contribution for psychoanalysis about the theory of repression, he explained that much of what lies in the unconscious mind has been put by consciousness, which acts as a censor.
Freud declares that fears, wishes, and dream are repressed by the conscious side of our mind. For instance the childhood wish to displace the parent of our own sex and take his or her place in the affection of the parents of the opposite sex. We called this as “oedipal”. In Freudian concept such wishes are more or less characteristic of normal human development. He also believes that the significance of dreams is unconscious side of psychoanalytic.
There are many interpreters that apply psychoanalytic approach in their works. In 1909 Otto Rank uses the theory of “oedipal complex” to analyze literary work. Another literary work which is analyzed by Freudian is I.A.Richards, Kenneth Burke, and etc.
Holland is one of dozens of critics who have revised Freud significantly in the process of revitalizing psychoanalytic criticism. Like critics of the Winnicottian School, the French structuralist theorist Jacques Lacan focuses on language and language-related issues. He treats the unconscious language and consequently, views the dream not as freud did (that is, as a form and symptom of repression) but rather as a form of discourse. Thus, we may study dreams psychoanalytically in order to learn about literature, even as we may study literature in order top learn more about the unconscious. Lacan, however, did far more than extend Freud’s Theory of dream, he both used and significantly developed Freud”s ideas about the oedipal stage and complex.
Lacan’s development of Freud has had several important result. First, his sexist-seeming association of maleness with the symbolic order, together with his claim that women cannot therefore enter easily into the order, has prompted feminist not to reject his theory out of hand but, rather, to look more closely at the relation between language and gender, language and women’s inequality. Second, Lacan’s theory has proved of interest to deconstructors and other poststructuralists, in part because it holds that the ego (which in Freud’s view is as necessary as it is natural) is a product or construct.

B. THE STUDY OF CHARLOTTE BRONTE’S JANE EYRE BY PSYCHOANALYSIS CRITICISM

Along period 1909 until 1949, most critics decided that psychological and psychoanalytic theory could assist in the understanding of literature. Moreover some critics believed that the writers wrote out of inferiority complexes which their own perceived it to their masterpieces. In this case, for the Novel Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte, we could reveal mentality disorders happened in The Fiction character in this novel and also conceal the mystery why Charlotte Bronte wrote this novel, is the character in the novel actually projection of The Author’s self image? This question brought us to discuss about it through Psychoanalytic discourse.
To approach this novel, we use Psychoanalytic term for treating mental disorders which is perceived by the character by investigating the interaction of conscious and unconscious element in the character’s mind and bringing repressed and bringing repressed fears and conflicts into the conscious mind, using techniques such as dream interpretation and free association.
In this novel. Jane Eyre has relationship with a man in Electra complex manifestation or “Female Oedipus Complex”. Because the way she was looked after by her father influence this behavior.
According to Psychoanalysis theory, one of the unconscious desires most commonly repressed is the childhood wish to displace the parent of our own sex and take his or her piece in the affections of the parent of the opposite sex. This is like the ancient Greek story about Oedipus who loved his mother and married her.
Jane Eyre (the Main character in Charlotte’s Bronte’s Novel) has latent mental disorder. That is Electra complex or “Feminist Oedipus Complex”. This is got from the result of “Child-rearing practices” when she was child. The theory of infantile sexuality states that the sexual instinct is active from birth and develops through a series of psychosexual stages. And one of the important psychosexual stages is phallic stage (3 until 5 or 6 years old). This period is time which all children experience Oedipus Complex., even though the symptoms may not make their appearance until much later.
Dianne F. Sadoff made an analysis for this problem; Jane Eyre is probably projection of Charlotte Bronte’s self experience. This is like what has been stated before at the previous Paragraph that the literature work could be manifested from the author’s. In Sadoff’s opinion about The Author, Charlotte Bronte lost her mother at age six; therefore she didn’t get enough affection of mother. The empty side of her heart is filled by her father who made her become Electra complex or “Feminist Oedipus Complex”
As like the Greek Famous Man, Oedipus, who finished and fulfill his regret of marrying his mother. It also happened to the author of this novel Charlotte Bronte that understand what should be in relationship with a man and break free the imagination of relationship between her and her father.

andriani said...

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1.Andriani Rahayu 052154238
2.Muthiatul Wadiah 052154240
3.Dewi Pratiwi 052154242
4.Firmansyah S M 052154257
5.Satria Angga 052154255

Summary of Psychoanalytic Criticism and Jane Eyre

Freud theories are either directly or indirectly concerned with the nature of the unconscious mind. Freud suggesting that the powers motivating men and women are mainly and normally unconscious. Freud developed that the human mind is essentially dual in nature. He called the predominantly passion, irrational, unknown, and unconscious part of the psyche the id, or “it”, was his term for the predominantly rational, logical, orderly, conscious part. Another aspect of the psyche, which he called the superego, is really a projection of the ego. The superego almost seems to be outsides of the self, making moral judgments, telling us to make sacrifices for good causes even though self-sacrifice may not be quite logical or rational. The superego is “outside”, since much of what it tells us to do or think we have learned from our parents, our schools, or our religious institutions.
What the ego and superego tell us not to do or think is repressed, forced into the unconscious mind. One of Freud’s important contributions to the study of the psyche, the theory of repression, goes something like this: much of what lies in the unconscious mind has been put there by consciousness, which acts as a censor, driving underground unconscious or conscious thoughts or instinct that it deems unacceptable. Censored materials often involve infantile sexual desires.
The world not only has Freud as psychoanalyst in literature. Beside Frued, Holland is one of the theorists who have received Freud significantly in the process of revitalizing psychoanalytic criticism. In a 1970 article entitled “The ‘Unconscious’ of Literature,” Norman Holland, a literary critic trained in psychoanalysis, for a moment sums up the attitudes held by critics who would psychoanalyze authors, but without quite saving that it is the author that is being analyzed by the psychoanalytic critic. His critics began to focus more on the ways in which authors create works that appeal to our repressed wishes and fantasies. Consequently, they shifted their focus away from the psyche of the author and toward the psychology of the reader and the theories. Yet another is D.W. Winnicot, “an object relation” theorist who has had a significant impact on literary criticism. Psychoanalytic theorists influenced by Winnicott see the potential reader space as being like the space entered into by psychoanalyst and patient. They also see it as being similar to the space characterized by trust in which categorizing terms such as knowing and feeling mix and merge and have a little meaning apart from one another. The French structuralism theorist, Jacques Lacan focuses on language and language related issues. He threats the unconscious but rather as a form of discourse. Therefore, we may study dreams psychoanalytically in order to learn about literature. Lacan’s development of Freud has had several important results. First, his sexist-seeming association of maleness with the symbolic order has prompted feminist not to reject his theory but to look more closely at the relation between language and gender, language and women’s inequality. Second, Lacan’s theory has proved of interest to deconstructors and other poststructuralists because it holds that the ego is a product or construct. Freud explanation is reflected in Jane Eyre. According to Sadoff, based on “structures” of “female desire” to Bronte’s life that the author of Jane Eyre lost her mother at age six and was left with an “eccentric” perhaps overbearing father who withdrew, who added to rather than healed the (maternal) void in his children’s experiences.” Afraid of her society will insult her, Jane Eyre repressed her feelings to his father for succeed in filling her loneliness. This novel tells us about a childhood fantasies. Freud is also point out that his interested in the father-daughter relationship of being beaten by their father. Frued describe these fantasies as originating in the struggles of the Oedipus complex.

rene said...

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1. Titis Langenati (052154028)
2. Afrene Permatasari (052154030)
3. Nestiani Hutami (052154033)
4. Endah Ayu Rahmasari (052154039)

Summary and Comment
According to Freud theory, there is an unconscious desire in childhood that the children want to replace one of their parents. But, they have fears to make their desire come true. It is caused by there sre religious and social values which make their desire hidden. This feeling, based on Freud, is called Oedi-pal.

In Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre, the main character, Jane Eyre, falls in love with a man who has father-figure. It is caused by her dark childhood which she is taken care by her cruel aunt after her parents are passed away.

So, the Freud theory above is less implemented in the conflict of Jane Eyre. Based on the Freud theory above, an Oedipus tries to get all the love and affection by replacing the position one of his or her parents. But, in Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre, Jane as the main character only tries to look for the father-figure to be loved and to be owned.

aione said...

THEORY OF LITERATURE II ASSIGNMENT

Group Names:
1. Cristina Fatmawati (052154239)
2. Ainun Ni’mah (052154241)
3. Anita Fadhilah (052154269)
4. Yuyun Kurniawati (052154252)

ENGLISH LITERATURE NON-REG/B


PSYCHOANALYTIC CRITICISM AND JANE EYRE
Summary:
Psychoanalytic criticism which written in this article implements Freudian theory. In Freudian theory mostly connected with unconscious mind which means Freud went further that men and women are mainly and normally unconscious after others (before him) suggested that under conscious human mind and rational only happen immediately. Then Freud developed an old idea: that the human mind is essentially dual in nature which are called rational which divided into id, and ego and irrational is only dominated by superego which reflected and ego.
Superego seems about outside of the self such as making moral judgments which needs much consideration especially when we want to decide something. While ego and superego afford to force into the unconscious mind which has brought by consciousness for example when human has dreams in his/her mind then they appear in disguised forms in conscious acts like slip of tongue.
According to Freud, all of us repressed wishes and fears; we all have dreams in which repressed feeling and memories emerges disguised, and thus we are all potential candidates for dream analysis. Freud’s belief in significance of dreams which there is an unconscious side to the psyche. It contains of which he developed a theory of how dreams work, and it helps him t o understand more than just dreams, and more influential for him.
Freud’s application of psychoanalytic theory to literature quickly caught on. In 1909 and 1949 numerous other critics decided that psychological and psychoanalytic theory could assist in the understanding of literature. According to Jungian theory, a great work of literature is not a disguised expression of its author’s personal, repressed wishes; rather, it is a manifestation of desires once held by the whole human race but now repressed because of the advent of civilization.
According to Sadoff’s psychoanalytic approach to Jane Eyre runs the ring of misleading Sadoff distinguishes between phases of female sadomasochistic fantasy, discusses Bronte’s relationship to her brother Branwell as well as to her father, details the way in which Jane deters the wedding she is driven by cultural “mythology” to seek, and finally addresses the vexing question of whether Bronte’s heroine ultimately achieves “self-mastery”. Sadoff explores the relationship between Jane and Bertha Rochester, Jane’s “nighttime double” (527), and deals with the longstanding critical assumption that Rochester’s maiming (during the burning of Thomfield) amounts to symbolic castration. She returns to Freud, to the Greek tragic hero Oedipus, and to the theme of blindness in order to shed light on the ‘’female Oedipus complex” as it is manifested in Jane Eyre.
The story in Jane Eyre tell much about Jane Eyre’s childhood which a lot of violence happens. It means that what Dianne mentions. In this article, is about sadomasochistic relationship between father and daughter which connected with childhood fantasies as Freud has viewed. Sadoff’s psycoanalitic approach to Jane Eyre has implemented well in this article.

cuwwiet said...

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Herwita S. Rosalina (052154034)
Mayang Pritasari (052154035)
Redzania Elfa Oktivani (052154036)
Maharani Siami (052154047)
Maya Stolastika B. (052154054)

Psychoanalytic Criticism and Jane Eyre's summary

According to Freud, by understanding human psychology we can appreciate literature on a new level, then we should acquaint ourselves with his insights. Freud's theories are either directly or indirectly concerned with the nature of the unconscious mind. The powers motivating men and women are mainly and normally unconscious. Freud also said that all of us have repressed wishes and fears; we all have dreams in which repressed feelings and memories emerge disguised, and thus we are all potential candidates for dream analysis. One of the unconscious desires is about displace our parent or own sex to take an affection of the parent of the opposite sex. Freud referred to whole complex of feelings by the word "oedi -pal". And naturally all of us have repressed wishes and fears; we all have dreams in which repressed feelings and memories emerge disguised, and thus we are all potential candidates for dream analysis. But sometimes we identified that feelings and memory such as childhood in wrong way……hence he conceived that natural urges, when identified as "wrong" may be repressed but not obliterated…..And this wrong way then is expressed as an action of disorder.
From the article of Bronte's "Jane Eyre" used Psychoanalytic approach by the theory of Freud about Oedipus Complex. But in this case it happens in a relationship between father and daughter - female Oedipus complex - or in common we called Electra Complex. According to Dianne F. Sadoff , this work is about disorder relationship between father and daughter because of wrong expressing of love and fantasy in terms of sadomasochistic that close to Electra complex. Jane Eyre is also influenced by the narrator experience of life. The narrator lost her mother at age six and live with an over protecting father. Sadoff said this work not only involve about a submission of a daughter to her father or father figures but also about same desire of fantasy or wishes of affection and a fear to be lonely that reflects in a wrong way. It involves an over protecting father, pitier, and all - embracing presence and female desire. From those needs then create a complex feelings.

Our group said...

Group:
Handita B. Asrirahadi (052154029)
Lianawati Rizqa (052154032)
Dony Kristiawan (052154049)
Citra Anggraeni (052154050)

SUMMARY & COMMENTS

Sigmund Freud's theories about unconsiousness has given new perspective about literature.It may explain the analogy between literary works and dreams.Freud defines the unconscious parts of human are ego,super-ego, and id.They are one's situation even (s)he does not realize when it happens.
"Freud's theories are either directly or indirectly concerned with the nature of the unconscious mind.."(par.4).Freud says that someone has repressed things in mind that may not be realized by himself,,it is caused by religion,norms,or such those things that do not 'allow' them to come up.So,that repressed things wil come in the dream.Freud uses words 'condensation' and 'displacement' to explain two of the mental processes whereby the mind disguises its wishes and fears in dream stories.Thus we may study dreams psychoanalytically in order to learn about literature.Freud's theories can help explain the nature of the authors' mind when he produces a literary work.We may 'open up' the repressed things,desire,fears that hidden in authors' mind.
In our opinion,Freud's theory about unconsciousness is implemented well enough in Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre.Jane Eyre as the main character,falls in love with a father-figure man,it is called Oedipus Complex when someone has an interest in sexuality with a much elder man/woman.Her background in the past when she was taken care by her cruel and harsh aunt has influenced her sexual life in adult age.As we know,Bronte also has a "certain" sexual experience in her life,,she lost her mother at six and was left with a father who withdrew.Bronte has desire for a married professor and her subsequent marriage to her father's clergyman.We think that Bronte's experience is manifested in Jane Eyre.Bronte may free herself;her desire and fears can be revealed in her novel.It proves that Freud's theory about unconsciousness is implemented well in Jane Eyre.

ilma said...

Ilma Sagita (052154027)
Ririn Eka Sari (052154042)
Nilud Rohmasari (052154043)
etno Dina Setyarin (052154044)
Nurul hidayah (052154045)

PHYSOANALITIC CRITICISM AND JANE EYRE

Based on Freud, what ego and superego tell us is not to do will be repressed on disguised to unconscious state. What commonly being repressed is our forbidden and unrealized wishes such as sexual pleasures, and fear. The repressions will be formed in: Slipped of the tongue, dream and creativity that may produce art including literary works.
Not just in natural life, psychoanalytic criticism is also needed in literary work in order to figure out the meaning of the story and its relationship with the authors as well. Sigmund Freud has divided into five stages: psychosexual development, the unconscious, repression, neuroses, transference and trauma. According to Norman Holland, he developed Freudian Psychological Development into four parts: Oral, Anal, Urethral, and Phallic. From these, he finally focuses on the author’s ways creating the work, in which it concerns with the readers more than the text itself. This helps to establish “Reader-Response Criticism”
Lacan also explains briefly about the Oedipus Stage and Complex, in which it is represented by the female character in Jane Eyre and it portraits the author’s background of life. For Lacan, the repressed wishes and fears of the character after being left by the mother’s death, she wishes too much from the father, and she sees him as another. Merely in a sense, father means nothing except his word or name.
Bronte’s novel Jane Eyre which tells about daughter and father relationship reflects the author’s life experience. Jane has a sadomasochistic relationship between the father and the daughter in 19th century. This enjoyment of both inflicting and experiencing pain especially in sexual activity also happen in Bronte’s life.
Finally based on Oedipus Concepts theory, it should be the son who experiences in so much love toward the mother and considers that the father is the rival he has to defeat. Reading the article shortly, we can see the Oedipus symptoms are implemented in the female character. So it is called as “Female Oedipus Complex”. It also happened in Bronte’s real life, who loved her father but then she finally married to her father’s clergyman. It shows that she only be able to admire the father from a distance and realizes that the love is unacceptable among the society, so she tries to look for a man whose figure almost the same with her father as well.
The similarity between the story and the writer’s background of life shows that the author’s psychology influences the story in expressing her feeling or experience toward her father through literary works unconsciously.
Rogers stated: “An author usually repressed themselves on their literately work without realizing it.”

ahmed23may said...

Mmmm... the e-learning starts working now. tq

9800GT said...

Nama anggota :
Alfian Yuzak M ( 052154236 )
Octa Novian Y ( 052154221 )
Arista Bintan ( 052154210 )
Mario Triyoga ( 052154260 )

Summary and Comments Psychoanalytic Critism And Jane Eyre

Based on Freud’s Theory, the want or need to make something happen which can make a great affect, but they cannot force it because of the life values or sometimes religious. It’s called Oedi-pal.
Freud also explaining about the desire of unconscious, which explain that everyone has the unconscious desire or want, but they are trying to depressed.
In Jane Eyre case, we can see that Jane’s hope is get the great figure of father, so Jane was dreaming to have a father like her dream, to be loved.

The Psychoanalytic Critism on this article has a correlated on the freudian theory which is explain about the unconscious mind. Freud also developed his on old idea: that the human mind is essentially dual in nature which are called rational which divided into id, and ego and irrational is only dominated by superego which reflected and ego.

We can see in this case in Jane Eyre’s unconscious mind she tries to replace her affections of her parents,and it is called it oedipal. In Freudian concept such wishes are more or less characteristic of normal human development. He also believes that the significance of dreams is unconscious side of psychoanalytic.

9800GT said...

Nama anggota :
Alfian Yuzak M ( 052154236 )
Octa Novian Y ( 052154221 )
Arista Bintan ( 052154210 )
Mario Triyoga ( 052154260 )

Summary and Comments Psychoanalytic Critism And Jane Eyre

Based on Freud’s Theory, the want or need to make something happen which can make a great affect, but they cannot force it because of the life values or sometimes religious. It’s called Oedi-pal.
Freud also explaining about the desire of unconscious, which explain that everyone has the unconscious desire or want, but they are trying to depressed.
In Jane Eyre case, we can see that Jane’s hope is get the great figure of father, so Jane was dreaming to have a father like her dream, to be loved.

The Psychoanalytic Critism on this article has a correlated on the freudian theory which is explain about the unconscious mind. Freud also developed his on old idea: that the human mind is essentially dual in nature which are called rational which divided into id, and ego and irrational is only dominated by superego which reflected and ego.

We can see in this case in Jane Eyre’s unconscious mind she tries to replace her affections of her parents,and it is called it oedipal. In Freudian concept such wishes are more or less characteristic of normal human development. He also believes that the significance of dreams is unconscious side of psychoanalytic.

9800GT said...

Names of group:

Wifa ratnaningtyas
Merliana ayu candra
Kartika Martha


This story begins at the anchor in London. as one of the dark places of the earth when Roman s first came north and found sandbacks,marches,forest and savages.like Romans, Charlie Marlow( night seaman) tale takes him to a distant dark place, as his journey to south Africa when he was received, with the intervention of an aunt, an appointment to captain a steamboat up to Congo. After passing through some ritual initiations into company, an interview in Belgium and a brief physical examination, Marlows arrives at the first station when he is told the steamboat he is to captain has been run aground and is in need of month of repair before he can take his charge of ivory-hunting pilgrims into the interior. marlows first hears about an enigmatic figure, a man called Kurt, an extraordinarily successful ivory tradesman and the first class agent in charge of the most interior station. kurt has fallen ill and his trading post in jeopardy.
Kurt’s fate in unraveled as Marlow enters the deep myseries of inner and outer landscapes. It appears kurts, who had begun the assignment a man of great idealism and the highest moral, had become strangely savage. Tribes of natives workship the man who lives in a hut that surrounded by fence post topped with recentyly acquired human skulls. Kurts has undergone a total disintegration. he neither wants to leave his tribe of Kurts .as his feeble body is taken aboard the ship, his underworld consort appears on shore as magnificent savage apparition.
Though Kurt escapes from the steamer once, Marlow ashore to reclaim him. Back on board and knowing he is close to death, kurts asks Marlow to deliver some treasured papers to his intended, his finance in London. And then Kurt cries out, his last word “the horror”, twice.
Returning at London, Marlow eventually brings the paper to kurt intended to ask what were the last words of her beloved.marlows lies and tells her that her name was the last thing on Kurt’s lips. Marlow takes leave of Kurt’s intended and returns to the Thames to tell the story of the heart of darkness.
In Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, A Metaphor of Jungian Psychology, explores about personal concept and the collective unconscious which is dealing with individuation journey, meeting with anima, the shadow, and into the underworld. Conrad Marlow is moved toward his African destiny. Africa has become a topology of the mind, because the location, shape, cultures, textures, rhythms, etc. Lost in the psychology of the white European which is using our destiny understanding that symbolic lost continent to appreciate in Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness. Jungian reflects his travel to Africa into memorizes, dreams for setting in the first place, time and recognition of personified shadow.
Many Jungian theory found in the heart of darkness
• “…The Russian says that Kurt is near to death… one night Marlow happen upon Kurt, obviously near death. As Marlow comes closer with a candle, Kurt seems to experience at a moment of clarity and speaks his lost word “the horror, the horror”! Marlow believes this to be Kurt’s reflection on the events of his life...” This implies Jung theory of collective unconsciousness is a shared of a set of images, called archetypes, common to all people.
• “…Harlequin explains that Kurt has used his guns and personal charisma to take over tribes in Africa and had used them to make war other for their ivory…” it implies of Jung theory that the goal of personality, Kurt used his personal charisma, which is the same as persona. The persona represents your public image, the persona is the mask you put on before you show yourself to the outside.
• “…Marlow promises to maintain Kurt’s reputation as a great man and advises the Russian to flee to friendly natives…” it implies how Marlow wants to keep the Kurt’s good image. He added as a hero. This character implies the shadow in Jungian theory of projection/shadow.